Loka Alert 7:4 (24 September 2000)
From: "The Loka Institute" <Loka@loka.org> Date: Sun Sep 24, 2000 4:07pm Subject: CHILDREN AND COMPUTERS: A CALL FOR ACTION
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CHILDREN AND COMPUTERS: A CALL FOR ACTION
By the Alliance for Childhood
Friends & Colleagues:
In this Loka Alert the Alliance for Childhood -- a new partnership of child advocates -- raises concerns about the effects of computers on children. Their position statement - below - calls for a "time-out" in the rush to computerize early childhood and elementary education, and advocates for a broad public dialogue on the real impact of computers on children. Endorsed by 80 individuals in the U.S. and abroad, the statement raises important issues about our social and educational priorities, and implications for future generations.
This is one in an occasional series on the democratic politics of research, science, and technology issued free of charge by the nonprofit Loka Institute. TO BE ADDED TO THE LOKA ALERT E-MAIL LIST, or to reply to this post, please send a message to <Loka@loka.org>.
Jill Chopyak Executive Director
The Loka Institute P.O. Box 355, Amherst, MA 01004, USA E-mail <Loka@loka.org> Web <http://www.Loka.org> Tel. 413-559-5860; Fax 413-559-5811
(I) CHILDREN AND COMPUTERS: A CALL TO ACTION, by the Alliance for Childhood..............................................(10 pages)
(II) LOKA INSTITUTE UPDATES.................................(1 page)
(III) INTERNSHIPS AT THE LOKA INSTITUTE....................(1/3 page)
(IV) ABOUT THE LOKA INSTITUTE..............................(1/3 page)
September 24 2000 Loka Alert 7:4
CHILDREN AND COMPUTERS: A CALL TO ACTION By The Childhood Alliance
The Alliance for Childhood is a new partnership of educators, health- care professionals, researchers, parents, and other child advocates who are concerned about the stress in children's lives today, especially the pressure to grow up in a hurry. Thoughtful individuals, for example, have raised concerns about the potential physical, emotional, social, and intellectual hazards when computers are emphasized in young children's lives. But no organized group has spoken out to support these lone critiques.
Meanwhile, the commercial and political push for high-tech childhood is accelerating, despite 30 years of disappointing findings on the academic impact of computers. The U.S. Congressional Web-based Education Commission, for example, is expected to issue recommendations in November that will promote "web-based education" for students of all ages, apparently including preschoolers. The increasing focus on computers is especially disturbing given the needs of our most at-risk children. Research indicates they benefit strongly from more intensive one-to-one attention from caring parents, teachers, and other adult mentors -- not more machine interactions. They also need more opportunities for active play, especially outdoors in nature, for the arts, for libraries well stocked with books, and for hands-on science and other hands-on lessons -- not more time staring at screens.
The time and money lavished on computers would be much better spent refocusing on these healthy essentials and on meeting our most disadvantaged children's most urgent needs. The latter include, for example, the immediate elimination of childhood lead poisoning, good nutrition and health care, quality child care for families of the working poor, and smaller classes and higher teacher salaries to help good teachers provide the personal attention that really helps children thrive.
Because alliance members felt the concerns above are serious but much neglected, and because there is such a push for an ever stronger emphasis on computers, at home and school, for ever younger children, we decided to take this issue up. We have just released a new report on the subject, "Fool's Gold: A Critical Look at Computers in Childhood." The full report can be read or downloaded from our web site at http://www.allianceforchildhood.net
We've also drafted a position statement that calls for a time-out from the rush to computerize early childhood and elementary education, and a broad public dialogue on the real impact of computers in the lives of children. The Alliance asked a range of individuals concerned about children and technology if they would like to endorse the statement. Both the statement and the names of more than 80 individuals who have endorsed it are below. If you are interested in endorsing the statement, or would like to respond, please contact info@a..., or mailed to Alliance for Childhood, P.O. Box 444, College Park, MD 20741, USA (Telephone: +1-301-513-1777).
STATEMENT Released September 12, 2000
CHILDREN AND COMPUTERS: A CALL FOR ACTION
Computers are reshaping children's lives, at home and at school, in profound and unexpected ways. Common sense suggests that we consider the potential harm, as well as the promised benefits, of this change.
Computers pose serious health hazards to children. The risks include repetitive stress injuries, eyestrain, obesity, social isolation, and, for some, long-term damage to physical, emotional, or intellectual development. Our children, the U.S. Surgeon General warns, are the most sedentary generation ever. Will they thrive spending even more time staring at screens?
Children need stronger personal bonds with caring adults. Yet powerful technologies are distracting children and adults from each other.
Children need time for active, physical play; hands-on lessons of all kinds, especially in the arts; and direct experience of the natural world. Research shows these are not frills but are essential for healthy child development. Yet many schools have cut already minimal offerings in these areas to shift time and money to expensive, unproven technology.
The emphasis on technology is distracting us from the urgent social and educational needs of low-income children. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Sherry Turkle has asked: "Are we using computer technology not because it teaches best but because we have lost the political will to fund education adequately?"
Given the high costs and clear hazards, we call for a moratorium on the further introduction of computers in early childhood and elementary education. We call for families, schools, and communities to refocus on the essentials of a healthy childhood. And we call for a broad public discussion about these critical issues.
Let's examine the claims about computers and children more closely:
**Do computers really motivate children to learn faster and better?
Children must start learning on computers as early as possible, we are told, to get a jump-start on success. But 30 years of research on educational technology has produced just one clear link between computers and children's learning. Drill-and-practice programs appear to improve scores modestly--though not as much or as cheaply as one- on-one tutoring--on some standardized tests, in narrow skill areas, notes Larry Cuban of Stanford University. "Other than that," says Cuban, former president of the American Educational Research Association, "there is no clear, commanding body of evidence that students' sustained use of multimedia machines, the Internet, word processing, spreadsheets, and other popular applications has any impact on academic achievement."
The sheer power of information technologies may actually hamper young children's intellectual growth. What is good for adults and older students is often inappropriate for youngsters. Face-to-face conversation with more competent language users, for example, is the one constant factor in studies of how children become expert speakers, readers, and writers. Time for real talk with parents and teachers is critical. Similarly, academic success requires focused attention, listening, and persistence.
The computer -- like the TV -- can be a mesmerizing babysitter. But many children, overwhelmed by the volume of data and flashy special effects of the World Wide Web and much software, have trouble focusing on any one task. And a new study from the American Association of University Women casts doubt on the claim that computers automatically motivate learning. Many girls, it found, are bored by computers. And many boys seem more interested in violent video games than educational software.
**Must five-year-olds be trained on computers today to get the high- paying jobs of tomorrow?
For a relatively small number of children with certain disabilities, technology offers benefits. But for the majority, computers pose health hazards and potentially serious developmental problems. Of particular concern is the growing incidence of disabling repetitive stress injuries among college students who began using computers in childhood.
The technology in schools today will be obsolete long before five- year-olds graduate. Creativity and imagination are the prerequisites for innovative thinking, which will never be obsolete. Yet a heavy diet of ready-made computer images and programmed toys appears to stunt imaginative thinking. Teachers report that children in our electronic society are becoming alarmingly deficient in generating their own images and ideas.
**Do computers really "connect" children to the world?
Too often, what computers actually connect children to are trivial games, inappropriate adult material, and aggressive advertising. They can also isolate children, emotionally and physically, from direct experience of the natural world. The "distance" education they promote is the opposite of what all children, and especially children at risk, need most -- close relationships with caring adults.
Research shows that strengthening bonds between teachers, students, and families is a powerful remedy for troubled students and struggling schools. Overemphasizing technology can weaken those bonds. The U.S. National Science Board reported in 1998 that prolonged exposure to computing environments may create "individuals incapable of dealing with the messiness of reality, the needs of community building, and the demands of personal commitments." In the early grades, children need live lessons that engage their hands, hearts, bodies, and minds -- not computer simulations. Even in high school, where the benefits of computers are clearer, too few technology classes emphasize the ethics or dangers of online research and communication. Too few help students develop the critical skills to make independent judgments about the potential for the Internet -- or any other technology -- to have negative as well as positive social consequences.
_Our Conclusion_: Those who place their faith in technology to solve the problems of education should look more deeply into the needs of children. The renewal of education requires personal attention to students from good teachers and active parents, strongly supported by their communities. It requires commitment to developmentally appropriate education and attention to the full range of children's real, low-tech needs -- physical, emotional, and social, as well as cognitive.
Therefore, we call for:
1: A refocusing in education, at home and school, on the essentials of a healthy childhood: strong bonds with caring adults; time for spontaneous, creative play; a curriculum rich in music and the other arts; reading books aloud; storytelling and poetry; rhythm and movement; cooking, building things, and other handcrafts; and gardening and other hands-on experiences of nature and the physical world.
2: A broad public dialogue on how the emphasis on computers affects the real needs of children, especially children in low-income families.
3: A comprehensive report by the U.S. Surgeon General on the full extent of physical, emotional, and other developmental hazards computers pose to children.
4: Full disclosure by information-technology companies about the physical hazards to children of using their products.
5: A halt to the commercial hyping of harmful or useless technology for children.
6: A new emphasis on ethics, responsibility, and critical thinking in teaching older students about the personal and social effects of technology.
7: An immediate moratorium on the further introduction of computers in early childhood and elementary education, except for special cases of students with disabilities. Such a time-out is necessary to create the climate for the above recommendations to take place.
Signed by: (Organizations included for identification purposes only.)
SAMELLA ABDULLAH, PH.D., M.S.W., psychotherapist, educator, and consultant; former professor, Illinois School of Professional Psychology; and former president, the Association of Black Psychologists
JOAN ALMON, former kindergarten teacher and U.S. coordinator, Alliance for Childhood
JEFFREY ANSHEL, O.D., Corporate Vision Consulting, and author, _Visual Ergonomics in the Workplace_
ALISON ARMSTRONG, author, _The Child and the Machine: How Computers Put Our Children's Education at Risk_
ANDY BAUMGARTNER, 1999 National Teacher of the Year, 1998 Milken Educator Award winner, and kindergarten teacher, A.Brian Merry Elementary School, Augusta, GA
MARILYN BENOIT, M.D., child and adolescent psychiatrist, Howard University Hospital, and president-elect of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Dr. Benoit's signature, as noted above, does not reflect an endorsement of this statement by the academy)
MARGIT L. BLEECKER, M.D., PH.D., neurologist, specialist in repetitive stress injuries, and director, Center for Occupational and Environmental Neurology in Baltimore
HANK BROMLEY, PH.D., associate professor of education and director, Center for the Study of Technology in Education, State University of New York at Buffalo; editor, _Education/Technology/Power: Education Computing as a Social Practice_
CHET BOWERS, PH.D., educator and author, _Let Them Eat Data: How Computers Affect Education, Cultural Diversity_, and _The Prospects of Ecological Sustainability_, and _The Culture of Denial: Why the Environmental Movement Needs a Strategy for Reforming Universities and Public Schools_
SANDRA CAMPBELL, researcher on computers in education, and the role of the arts and imagination in positive social learning; and educational consultant, Viva Associates
FRITJOF CAPRA, PH.D., physicist and author of _The Tao of Physics, and _Web of Life_
IAN CHUNN, M.A., program director, Centre for Distance Education, Simon Fraser University
RHONDA CLEMENTS, ED.D., President, The American Association for the Child's Right to Play
BRENDAN CONNELL, student, Harvard University (Mr. Connell developed repetitive stress injuries related to computer use while a student at Montgomery Blair High School in Montgomery County, MD)
COLLEEN CORDES, writer, co-coordinator of Task Force on Computers in Childhood, Alliance for Childhood
MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, PH.D., professor of psychology and management and director of the Quality of Life Research Center at Claremont Graduate University, and author, _Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience_
LARRY CUBAN, PH.D., professor of education, Stanford University, and former president, the American Educational Research Association
O. FRED DONALDSON, PH.D., play specialist, Moreno Valley Unified School District
HUBERT L. DREYFUS, PH.D., professor of philosophy, the Graduate School, University of California at Berkeley, and author, _On the Internet: Nihilism on Line_ (in press)
ELLIOT EISNER, PH.D., Lee Jacks professor of education and professor of art at Stanford University; former president of the American Educational Research Association, the National Art Education Association, and the International Society for Education Through Art; and author, _The Kind of Schools We Need_
OSCAR H. GANDY, JR., PH.D., Herbert I. Schiller professor of communication at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania
SIMSON L. GARFINKEL, chief technology officer, Sandstorm Enterprises, Inc., and author, _Database Nation: The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century_
CLAIRE RYLE GARRISON, director, Whole Child Initiative, State of the World Forum
JOHN TAYLOR GATTO, former New York State Teacher of the Year, and author, _Dumbing Us Down_, and _The Underground History of American Education: A School Teacher's Intimate Investigation Into the Problem of Modern Schooling_ (in press)
CHELLIS GLENDINNING, PH.D., psychologist and author, _When Technology Wounds_
JANE GOODALL, PH.D., primate researcher and founder, Jane Goodall Institute -- U.K.
JOAN DYE GUSSOW, M.S., Rose Professor Emeritus, Nutrition and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, and author of _Chicken Little, Tomato Sauce, and Agriculture: Who Will Produce Tomorrow's Food?_
JANE HEALY, PH.D., educational psychologist; former teacher, administrator, and learning specialist; author of _Failure to Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children's Minds -- for Better and Worse_, _Endangered Minds_, and _Your Child's Growing Mind_
HAROLD HOWE II, retired educator; former U.S. Commissioner of Education and vice president of Ford Foundation for Education; senior lecturer emeritus, Harvard Graduate School of Education
PHILIP INCAO, M.D., primary care physician and founder, Colorado Alliance for Childhood
HENRY C. JOHNSON, JR., PH.D., professor emeritus in education theory and policy, Pennsylvania State University
JEFFREY KANE, PH.D., dean, School of Education, C.W. Post Campus, Long Island University, and editor, _Education, Information and Transformation: Essays on Learning and Thinking_
CHRISTOPHER KENDALL, M.M., director, School of Music, University of Maryland; artistic director and conductor, 20/1 Century Consort, new- music ensemble in residence at the Smithsonian Institution; founder and lutenist, Folger Consort in residence at the Folger Shakespeare Library
JOHN KENDALL, music educator, internationally recognized authority on violin pedagogy, introducer of the Suzuki Method from Japan to the United States
STEPHEN KLINE, PH.D., professor in the School of Communication, Simon Fraser University, and author, _Out of the Garden: Toys, TV, and Children's Culture in the Age of Marketing_
EDGAR KLUGMAN, PH.D., professor emeritus, Wheelock College, and editor of _Play, Policy and Practice._
DIANE LEVIN, PH.D., professor of education, Wheelock College, and author, _Remote Control Childhood_
SUSAN LINN, ED.D., associate director, the Media Center at Judge Baker Children's Center, and instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School
JOAN S. LIPSITZ, PH.D., education consultant, former director of elementary and secondary education for the Lily Endowment, Inc., founder and director of the Center for Early Adolescence at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
JERRY MANDER, program director, Foundation for Deep Ecology; president, International Forum on Globalization; and author, _In the Absence of the Sacred: The Failure of Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nations_
BILL MCKIBBEN, author of _The Age of Missing Information_
DEBORAH W. MEIER, MacArthur-Award-winning educator, now principal, Mission Hill School, Boston Public Schools, and founder of the Central Park East Schools in East Harlem
EDWARD MILLER, ED.M., educational policy analyst, former editor of the _Harvard Education Letter_, and co-coordinator, Task Force on Computers in Childhood, Alliance for Childhood
MARITA MOLL, researcher and analyst of educational-technology policies, and author, _Tech High; Globalization and the Future of Canadian Education_
LOWELL MONKE, PH.D., former award-winning teacher of advanced technology classes in the Des Moines Public Schools and former member of Des Moines' Technology Steering Committee, now assistant professor of education, Wittenberg University; co-author, _Breaking Down the Digital Walls: Learning to Teach in a Post-Modem World_ (in press)
THOMAS MOORE, author, _Care of the Soul: A Guide for Cultivating Depth and Sacredness in Everyday Life_
DAVID NOBLE, PH.D., professor of social science, York University, and author, "Digital Diploma Mills" and _The Religion of Technology_
DOUGLAS NOBLE, PH.D., senior research associate, SUNY-Geneseo, and author, _The Classroom Arsenal: Military Research, Information Technology, and Public Education_
JASON OHLER, PH.D., director, Educational Technology Program, University of Alaska Southeast
DAVID ORR, PH.D., chair, Environmental Studies Program at Oberlin College, and author, _Earth in Mind: On Education, Environment and the Human Prospect_
MARIA PAPADAKIS, PH.D., director, Institute for the Social Assessment of Information Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (Dr. Papadakis was the author of Chapter Eight: Economic and Social Significance of Information Technologies, for the U.S. National Science Board's official biennial report, _Science & Engineering Indicators -- 1998_. The chapter summarized the research on the impacts of information technology on K-12 student learning.)
KIM JOHN PAYNE, M.A., clinical psychologist, researcher and educational consultant for attention-related disorders, and author, _The Games Children Play_
MARY PIPHER, PH.D., psychologist and author, _Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls_, and _The Shelter of Each Other: Rebuilding Our Families_
NEIL POSTMAN, PH.D., chair, Department of Culture and Communications, New York University, and author, _Technopoly, The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School_, and _The Disappearance of Childhood_
ALVIN F. POUSSAINT, M.D., director, the Media Center at Judge Baker Children's Center and clinical professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School
DEBORAH QUILTER, RSI prevention consultant and author, _The Repetitive Strain Injury Recovery Book_
RAFFI, singer, founder, the Troubadour Institute
DIANE RAVITCH, PH.D., research professor, New York University, and former assistant secretary of education, responsible for the U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
BETH ROSENBERG, consumer technology journalist, especially on issues involving young children and CD-ROMs
THEODORE ROSZAK, PH.D., professor of history, California State University-Hayward, and author of _The Cult of Information_
RUSTUM ROY, PH.D., Evan Pugh professor of Science, Technology, and Society, Penn State University
GARY RUSKIN, M.P.P., director, Commercial Alert
DOROTHY ST. CHARLES, leadership specialist for the Milwaukee Public Schools and former principal
Barry Sanders, Ph.D., professor of English and history of ideas, Pitzer College and author of _A is for Ox: The Collapse of Literacy and the Rise of Violence in an Electronic Age_
RICHARD SCLOVE, PH.D., M.S., founder, The Loka Institute, and author, _Democracy and Technology_
DAVID SHENK, author of _Data Smog: Surviving the Information Glut; and The End of Patience: Cautionary Notes on the Information Revolution_
DAVID SKRBINA, M.S., M.S., concerned parent, member of Citizens Technology Advisory Committee for the Northville (MI) schools, and supervisor, Ford Motor Co., advanced technology
DOUGLAS SLOAN, PH.D., professor of history and education, Teachers College, Columbia University and editor of _The Computer in Education: A Critical Perspective_
ANN SPEED, PH.D., cognitive psychologist, Web-based education and training specialist in Colorado
CLIFFORD STOLL, PH.D., astronomer and author, _High Tech Heretic and The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage_ (October, 2000)
STEPHEN TALBOTT, former software engineer, technical writer and technical editor; senior researcher, The Nature Institute; and editor of _NetFuture: Technology and Human Responsibility_, an online newsletter
BETSY TAYLOR, executive director, Center for a New American Dream
JOANNA REDFIELD VAUGHN, art specialist, Austin Independent School District
FRANK VESPE, executive director, TV-Turnoff Network
BAILUS WALKER, JR., PH.D., M.P.H., professor of environmental and occupational medicine, Howard University College of Medicine; chairman, Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning; former commissioner of public health for Massachusetts; former director of the Occupational Health Standards Division, U.S. Department of Labor; former president of the American Public Health Association
JOSEPH WEIZENBAUM, PH.D., professor emeritus of computer science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and author, _Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation_
ROBERT WELKER, PH.D., professor and chair of education, Wittenberg University
DAPHNE WHITE, founder and director, The Lion and Lamb Project in Bethesda, MD
FRANK R. WILSON, M..D., medical director, Health Program for Performing Artists, University of California at San Francisco, and author, _The Hand: How It's Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture_
CARL WINGO, library consultant for technology and bibliographic services, Missouri State Library
LANGDON WINNER, PH.D., professor of political science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and author, _The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology_, and Autonomous Technology_
PEI-HSUAN WU, lab manager and technology assistant, Saint Mark's School, San Rafael, CA
ARTHUR ZAJONC, PH.D., professor of physics, Amherst College, and author, _Catching the Light: The Entwined History of Light and Mind_, and co-author, _The Quantum Challenge: Modern Research on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics_
This statement was drafted and distributed by the Alliance for Childhood. The Alliance is a partnership of individuals and organizations committed to fostering and respecting each child's inherent right to a healthy and developmentally appropriate childhood.
(II) LOKA INSTITUTE UPDATES
NEW LOKA BOARD MEMBERS
The Loka Institute is happy to announce the recent appointment of the following individuals to its Board of Directors:
We welcome them and all that they will bring to the organization!
2000 COMMUNITY RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE
The Third Annual Community Research Network (CRN) Conference, Common Problems, Uncommon Resources: Exploring the Social and Economic Challenges to Community-based Research took place June 16-18 in Atlanta, GA, USA. The conference brought together approximately 275 participants from 11 countries. Of the participants, 50% were people of color, and Loka provided 80 participants with scholarships.
Conference Highlights: The conference included four separate interest tracks, over 50 workshops, CRN strategizing sessions, guest speakers, and plenty of drumming (African, Caribbean, Latin). Some of the key issues coming out of the conference included:
** Facing the race, class, gender and cultural challenges to community-based research. ** Making the shift from research on the community to research by the community. We need to get away from 'top down' research that comes into a community with pre-determined goals and methods. ** Improving capacity and sustainability in the field, be more aggressive and comprehensive in funding campaigns, and disseminate results of community-based research projects. ** Create more buy-in to community-based research by improving visibility of the methodology in terms of its educational value, effectiveness, and enhanced ethical and democratic character. ** Develop a clearer, more inclusive definition of community-based research. ** Keep more constant communication within the Network. This may be achieved by starting a peer-reviewed community-based research journal, written and published by members of the CRN; decentralizing next year's conference into a series of regional conferences; and enhancing and expanding the use of CRN listserve, website, email, hardcopy mailings, and newsletters. ** We need more tools for improving our work, e.g., trainings on community-based research throughout the year. ** International collaboration is one of the keys to improving and expanding community-based research in the U.S. We need to draw upon the participatory models initially derived from outside of the U.S., in particular, models from developing countries.
SOUTHEAST REGIONAL COMMUNITY RESEARCH CENTER
Loka, in partnership with the Brisbane Institute of Morehouse College, and Project South (a community-based organization), has developed of the Southeast Regional Community Research Center (SCRC) in Atlanta, GA, USA. The center is a regional "hub" of the larger Community Research Network. Its activities will focus on building a regional network of researchers, community-based organizations, and research institutions; developing tools and training programs that enhance skills exchange and community-based research capacity; Coordinating community-based research projects and initiatives; and Implementing an evaluation/documentation strategy for the center and community-based research projects.
(III) LOKA INSTITUTE INTERNSHIPS
The Loka Institute has openings for volunteers, Graduate and undergraduate student interns, and work-study students.
Interns' responsibilities include updating our Web page; managing email lists and listservs; conducting background research on issues concerning science, technology, and society; and helping with administrative work. Interns committing to a semester or more will have the opportunity to integrate independent research into their internship experience.
Candidates should be self-motivated and able to work as part of a team as well as independently. A general knowledge and comfort with computers is needed. Experience in Web page maintenance is preferable. Undergraduate students, graduate students, and recent graduates are welcome to apply. Loka is able to provide interns with an expense stipend of $35 per day for volunteering (or $700 per month full-time-equivalent).
If you are interested in working with us to promote a democratic politics of science and technology, please send a resume and a succinct cover letter explaining your interest and dates of availability to: The Loka Institute, P.O. Box 355, Amherst, MA 01004, USA. We also are accept applications by e- mail to <Loka@loka.org> or by fax to 413-559-5811.
(IV) ABOUT THE LOKA INSTITUTE
The Loka Institute is a nonprofit organization dedicated to making research, science and technology responsive to democratically decided social and environmental concerns. Current Loka projects include:
TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE LOKA INSTITUTE, to participate in our on- line discussion groups, to download or order publications, or to help please visit our Web page: <http://www.Loka.org>. Or contact us via E-mail at <Loka@loka.org> or by telephone at 413-559-5860.
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